Rabu, 24 Februari 2010

Zig Bee

ZigBee is a wireless technology developed as an open global standard to address the unique needs of low-cost, low-power, wireless sensor networks. ZigBee is the equivalent of words and Zig Bee. Zig means zig-zag movement and Bee is a bee. Zigbee possess communication similar to the communication between the bees that perform movements erratic in conveying the information of honey to the bee that one to bee the other

The ZigBee Protocol

he ZigBee protocol was engineered by the zig bee aliance , a non-profit consortium of leading semiconductor manufacturers, technology providers, OEMs and end-users worldwide. The protocol was designed to provide OEMs and integrators with an easy-to-use wireless data solution characterized by low-power consumption, support for multiple network structures and secure connections

The ZigBee Advantage

The ZigBee protocol was designed to carry data through the hostile RF environments that routinely exist in commercial and industrial applications.

feature of zigBee
  • Low duty cycle - Provides long battery life
  • Support for multiple network topologies: Static, dynamic, star and mesh
  • Up to 65,000 nodes on a network
  • Low latency
  • Support for guaranteed time slots and packet freshness
  • Retries and acknowledgements
  • Clear channel assessment
  • Link quality indication
  • Collision avoidance
  • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
  • 28-bit AES encryption – Provides secure connections between devices

ieee 802,11 n

IEEE 802.11n-2009 is a wireless networking standard changes
IEEE 802,11-2.007 to increase throughput over previous standards,
such as 802.11b and 802.11g, with a maximum data rate improvement in layer
OSI Physical (PHY) of 54 Mbit / s to a maximum of 600 Mbit / s by using
four rooms in the wide flow channel 40 MHz(
40 MHz channel is another feature incorporated into 802.11n is
doubling the width of the channel from 20 MHz in earlier to 802.11 PHY
send data

1. Capable of transferring data such as the 'wireless highway' that save time
and more quickly.
2. Features minimize the amount of data needed to transfer files to give
more space in the path of the file transfer.
3. Provide a longer time for the battery because the chip 802.11n
uses less power.

4. There is a combination of two wireless frequencies for better performance.
5. Wi-Fi 802.11n can reach speeds of 600Mbps.

token ring and fddi

Token Ring uses a ring topology whereby the data is sent from one machine to the next and so on around the ring until it ends up back where it started. It also uses a token passing protocol which means that a machine can only use the network when it has control of the Token, this ensures that there are no collisions because only one machine can use the network at any given time.
The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) specifies a 100-Mbps token-passing, dual-ring LAN using fiber-optic cable. FDDI is frequently used as high-speed backbone technology because of its support for high bandwidth and greater distances than copper
The FDDI protocol is based on the TokenRing protocol. So the diferrent FDDI and Token Ring is about the route. If one is lost then the network token ring network can not connect but FDDI can connect bacause have two route

Handout MicroProsesor

Silahkan download handout microprosesor dan antar muka disini.

Senin, 22 Februari 2010

Setting IP version 6

Configure IPv6 using the IPv6 Configuration wizard

To configure IPv6 on the server, you must change the server's configuration using the IPv6 Configuration wizard in iSeries™ Navigator. IPv6 may only be configured from iSeries Navigator, and may not be configured from the character-based interface.

Note: You may configure the IPv6 ethernet line description by using the Create Line Desc (Ethernet) CRTLINETH command in the character-based interface; however, you must specify the hexadecimal multicast group address 333300000001. Then, you must use the IPv6 Configuration wizard to finish configuring IPv6.

The wizard will require the following input:

  • For configuring an Ethernet line for IPv6:
    This configuration allows you to send IPv6 packets over an IPv6 local area network (LAN). The wizard requires the name of the hardware communications resource on the server on which you will configure IPv6; for example, CMN01. This must be either a 2838 or 2849 Ethernet adapter that is not currently configured for IPv4. See create ipv6 LAN for a scenario that shows a situation in which you would configure an Ethernet line for IPv6.
  • For creating a configured tunnel line (TNLCFG64):
    • This type of configuration allows you to send IPv6 packets over IPv4 networks. The wizard requires the IPv4 address for the local endpoint and the IPv6 address for the local interface associated with the tunnel. See send ipv6 packets over ipv4 LAN and send ipv6 packets over ipv4 WAN for scenarios that show two situations in which you would create the configured tunnel lines for IPv6.

To use the IPv6 Configuration wizard, follow these steps:

  1. In iSeries Navigator, expand your server ––> Network ––> TCP/IP Configuration.
  2. Right-click IPv6 and select IPv6 Configuration.
  3. Follow the wizard's instructions to configure IPv6 on your server.

Sabtu, 20 Februari 2010

charging process on voip

Loading associated with the collection of detailed data about a conversation or use of services. Based on these data made the determination, the generation and recording meter pulses and their accumulation, which can be processed further to calculate the cost of such a conversation or service.

poin of charging

Loading point in a relationship is a place where charging for such a conversation is determined and recorded, and the counting begins loading.

Basis of payment

1. In general, charged the caller's conversation, except:
• Services are charged to a 800 call (free call)
• Customer IN imposed on both parties
• In a credit card is charged to third parties.

2. In general, a successful call will be charged. however in addition to this general rule implemented several provisions as follows:
• Emergency calls are exempt from fees
• Call a certain class free of charge, charged to the recipient of the call
• If no signal Answer / Answer, free of charge.

3.In general, the cost of the conversation depends on two basic elements: time and distance. Associated with the use of telecommunications facilities.

Kamis, 11 Februari 2010


VoIP(Voice over Internet Protocol) is Telecommunications services that connect users voice telephony through the Internet. Then will be predicted to be a replacement phone.

  • Numbering VoIP

Next i'll explain numbering on VoIP.The objective of a numbering plan is to establish a unique identification of subscribers and providers of services. The numbering plan for the telephone network is only one out of several numbering plans each facilitating communication between different users connected through a common infrastructure. Other numbering plans include numbering plans for data networks, such as the IP-numbers used for identification of users of the Internet. E-mail addresses and domain names may also be seen, as a sort of numbering systems as they also are used to provide users with a unique identification code.

  • Goverment Regulation

On Indonesia, the government (in this case the Director General of Post and Telecommunication) considered disturbing VOIP service provider official.
Banning is done by the raids, although not a strong legal basis. Reasons for the ban only
concerned about the lack of permits and the use of equipment standardization to the Director General of Post and Telecommunications issued. On the
Another, also imposed sanctions were too light compared to the benefits.
According to Ir. Suryatin Setiawan Director of Research and Development Division of PT Telkom, the new VoIP problems if
provider companies have acted as operator. Suhono Supangat, Multimedia Signal Processing and
Communication Research Group ITB explained that the ban on VoIP without cyberlaw will restrict
IP-based application development on public network.serta inhibits production of new tissue that supports
variety of multimedia communications is the basis for future mass technology.

  • VoIP Network Configuration
To connect to a VoIP network or VoIP service to make and receive SIP calls, each
location must be able to establish a high-speed connection to the Internet or
private network. The steps below should ensure success for typical network.
Connect to a LAN and IP network then Confirm the network connection has sufficient capacity for VoIP. Ensure there is a path for voice data through your router/firewall. Prioritize your voice traffic (If your Internet connection is shared between computers and TalkSwitch (i.e.
data and voice), it is critical that the voice traffic has priority over the data
traffic. If your router supports Quality of Service (QoS) for this purpose, ensure
that it is enabled (see your router documentation for configuration details)).

  • PC to PC

This configuration does not violate the rules, because the only feature of the Internet. This method is clearly the easiest way to make VoIP calls. You do not even have to pay a
sen to make long distance calls. There are several companies that offer low cost programs
even for free that can be used to make VoIP calls. You must provide only the programs
(software), microphone, speakers, soundcard and an internet connection, internet connection preferably a relatively fast
such as cable or DSL connection. In addition to monthly ISP fee, usually no more cost to call Computer-to -
Computer, how far was the distance.

  • Phone to Phone

This configuration illegal, because it did "bypass" the
Organized by long distance and International call with unfair. Indosat also consider VoIP for SLInya, but bound by the provisions of the Indosat 37/1999 KM must
interconnection fees paid to PT Telkom USD 1.350/menit or equal to U.S. $ 15.5 cents. Transition to
VoIP technology will not be effective unless such conditions changed.Source: http://www.channel-11.net/event/13.htm

  • Voip PC to Phone
Configuration connects the terminal device PC with terminal or vice versa by using a gateway for the conversion process sounds into data and vice versa. This configuration can connect between the user terminal with PSTN base with a user terminal in the IP network.